This book is designed to fulfill a dual role. On the one hand it provides a description of the rheological behavior of molten poly mers. On the other, it presents the role of rheology in melt processing operations. The account of rheology emphasises the underlying principles and presents results, but not detailed deriva tions of equations. The processing operations are described qualita tively, and wherever possible the role of rheology is discussed quantitatively. Little emphasis is given to non-rheological aspects of processes, for example, the design of machinery. The audience for which the book is intended is also dual in It includes scientists and engineers whose work in the nature. plastics industry requires some knowledge of aspects of rheology. Examples are the polymer synthetic chemist who is concerned with how a change in molecular weight will affect the melt viscosity and the extrusion engineer who needs to know the effects of a change in molecular weight distribution that might result from thermal degra dation. The audience also includes post-graduate students in polymer science and engineering who wish to acquire a more extensive background in rheology and perhaps become specialists in this area. Especially for the latter audience, references are given to more detailed accounts of specialized topics, such as constitutive relations and process simulations. Thus, the book could serve as a textbook for a graduate level course in polymer rheology, and it has been used for this purpose.
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"SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY OF '!HE UNDEROLED MELT" This title was chosen as the topical headline of the Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) from March 17 to 22 1985, held at the Castle of Theuern. The usual term "Rapid Solidification" is an overlapping description. Due to the fact that nucleation is so eminently important for the undercooling of a melt and this, in turn, is an important characteristic of rapid solidifi cation, undercooling plays an essential role in "rapid solidification." The undercooled melt has caused an "accelerated evolution" (if not a revolution) in materials science during the last decade. Several rather exciting concepts with interesting potential for novel applications are being pursued presently in various laboratories and companies. They concern not only new processes and ha~ware developments, but also present chal lenging perspectives for ventures, including the founding of new companies; or they promise growth possibilities with established larger and smaller industrial establishments.
Rapid Solidification Processing of molten metals and alloys has proved to be a reliable route for producing new and advanced materials. The Chill-Block Melt Spin (CBMS) technique is important because its simplicity, flexibility and perfection. High quality materials can be produced with lower costs, as compared to other routes, by refining the microstructure and trapping the nucleated (new) metastable phases. Melt-spun ribbons subsequently produced can then be consolidated to produce billets and sheets that can be used in many industries especially high-tech industries such as aerospace and racing automobiles. This book contains several perspectives about CBMS technology and should be a useful review for undergraduate and post-graduate metallurgy students.
This book presents state-of-the-art information concerning properties and processes involved in glass melts. Based upon contributions by renowned authors and scientists working with glass melt systems, Properties of Glass-Forming Melts is an excellent compilation of the current knowledge on property data, mechanisms, measurement techniques, and structure-related properties of glass-forming. The authors provide in-depth analyses of such topics as glass-melt density, thermal expansion, heat conductivity, and chemical activities. Each chapter combines fundamental concepts with a compilation of recent and reliable data that is essential in the modeling of glass melting, fining, conditioning, and forming. The book first discusses the glass-forming melts, thermodynamics, transport properties, and redox effects of glass. This provides a sound basis to the analysis of important properties of glass melts such as viscosity, surface tension, density, and heat capacity as well as more generalized subjects of heat transfer and gas solubility. A chapter on electrical properties provides a solid foundation for understanding glass melting via direct Joule heating of the melt. The examination of the corrosive nature of molten glasses will be of great interest to tank designers and operators. This unique handbook concludes with an overview of nuclear waste vitrification, a growing discipline that relies on current data and encourages research in glass melts. This book is an ideal starting place for future-generation glass scientists and an effective reference for scientists who require data on the behavior of viscous melts and for glass technologists who apply mathematical models simulating the melting and forming processes. Properties of Glass-Forming Melts offers a one-of-a-kind and valuable source of reliable data and insight by those with firsthand knowledge and experiences in this field.
Bottom-pour Ta and CaF2-coated steel melt crucibles for Pu and Pu-rich alloys were developed. The controlled pour is effected by melting a Pu plug in the bottom spout of the crucible after the desired temperature and vacuum conditions are obtained. A description is given of the development of the crucibles which have replaced ceramic crucibles for casting work on the kilogram scale.
Silicate Glasses and Melts, Second Edition describes the structure-property-composition relationships for silicate glasses and melts from a geological and industrial perspective. Updated sections include (i) characterization of silicate melt and COHN fluid structure (with and without dissolved silicate components) with pressure, temperature, and redox conditions and responses of structural variables to chemical composition, (ii) determination of solubility and solution mechanisms of COHN volatiles in silicate melts and minerals and of solubility and solution mechanisms of silicate components in COHN fluids, and (iii) effects of very high pressure on structure and properties of melts and glasses. This new book is an essential resource for researchers in a number of fields, including geology, geophysics, geoscience, volcanology, material science, glass science, petrology and mineralogy. Brings together multidisciplinary research scattered across the scientific literature into one reference, with a focus on silicate melts and their application to natural systems Emphasizes linking melt properties to melt structure Includes a discussion of the pros and cons of the use of glass as a proxy for melt structure and properties Written by highly regarded experts in the field who, among other honors, were the 2006 recipients of the prestigious G.W. Morey award of the American Ceramic Society
This book focuses on the experimental determination of the physical properties of silicate melts and magmas close to glass transition. Abundant new data are presented. The same type of measurement is performed on a range of melts to test the effect of composition on physical properties; and a range of different techniques are used to determine the same physical properties to illustrate the relationships between the relaxation of the melt structure and the relaxation of its physical properties. This book is of interest to experimental researchers in the discussion of data obtained from both a materials science and a geoscientific point of view.
Selective Laser Melting for Metal Matrix Composites explains in detail the essential preparation and characterization methods for this technology, and explores a range of innovative applications. The subject covered by this book has been the focus of increasing levels of research both in industry and academia globally. The authors have drawn on their influential cutting-edge research to provide a much-needed guide for those investigating or applying this technology. The novel material preparation methodologies addressed here provide new opportunities to expand the applications of additive manufacturing, particularly in industries such as aerospace, medical, automotive, and electronics. These applications, as well as the theory behind this technology are also covered in this book, providing a complete guide which is appropriate for engineers in industry as well as researchers. Provides descriptions of the microstructure and properties of the components produced Explains emerging applications of this technology in a range of industries Covers a range of different materials including iron base, and aluminium and titanium composites Summarises the current research landscape in this field, and signposts the problems in metal matrix composites which remain to be solved